Output Journal: Pornsunthorntawee, O., Arttaweeporn, N., Paisanjit, S., Somboonthanate, P., Abe, M., Rujiravanit, R., & Chavadej, S. (2008). Isolation and comparison of biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis PT2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 for microbial surfactant-enhanced oil recovery.Biochemical Engineering Journal42(2), 172–179.

1. There are 2 types of surfactant:
a) Synthetic Surfactant from organic chemical reaction

b) Bio-sufactant from biological process. It is excreted extracellular by microorganism such as bacteria, fungi and yeast

2. The advantages of bio-surfactant

a)  Low toxicity

b)  High biodegrability
c)  Low irritancy

d)  Compatibility with human skin

3. Bio-surfactant can retain under extreme condition: pH, temperature, salinity
4. Bio-surfactant categories are:
a)      Lipopetida and lipoproteins
b)      Glucolipids
c)      Phospholipids
d)     Polymeric surfactant
5. Bio-surfactant can aggregate at interface between fluids having different polarities for example water and oil. It can reduce interfacial tension thus enhance oil production.
6. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) have two types of system:
a)      Ex-situ: produced bio-surfactant above ground and put into reservoir
b)      In-situ: produce bio-surfactant in the reservoir
7. Production of bio-surfactant must have carbon source such as palm oil
8. Bacillus subtilis PT2 – produce lipopetides
9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 – produce glucolipids
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